# Natural Selection: Nature’s rule in Mathematics

While talking about natural selection, the person who inevitably comes into the scene is none but the most renowned, and simultaneously criticized British Naturalist of eighteenth century, Charles Darwin. Most of us know him for his connection with evolution. In reality, the birth of the concept of evolution took place far earlier. However he added a very exquisite insight to explain evolution that is Natural Selection. The diversity of organisms on earth follows the rule of natural selection and is determined by interactions of living organisms among themselves and with non-living world.

There may be long debates on evolution, but there is no doubt about the strength and power of the theory of natural selection. It states that in a given population, during competition between the individuals, the ones with the maximum fitness will survive and be able to reproduce. This fact can be compared to a simpler example, suppose four princes once went hunting together. Suddenly they entered into a cursed dark forest and lost their way to the outside. There lived a beautiful lady in the forest; she was the only human there. All of the princes wanted to get the lady. But the lady would marry only one. So they got into a fight. Finally one stood while the others got killed and the lady married him. They gave birth to children and passed their genes to them. Thus only their genes survived and other went extinct. The one lucky prince is selected by the competition or fights between all of them. In nature, this competition may be between the same species or between different species of organisms.

A competition arises always from the imbalance between demand and supply of resources. This is a limiting factor for the population. Based on this principle many of the most efficient algorithms are formulated. They are called Genetic Algorithm.

An algorithm is a collection of mathematical steps for solving a problem. Algorithms are used widely for formulating computer programs. Every command you make in your computer is a set of instructions which are implemented by the computer using algorithms. However, the use of algorithm is not only confined in computer programs. A very simple algorithm can be given for adding two numbers (3 and 5).
Step 1. Take the first number, 3
Step 2. Add 1 to 3.
Step 3. Repeat the step for more four times.